What is Functional Testing?
FUNCTIONAL TESTING is a type of software testing that validates the software system against the functional requirements/specifications. The purpose of Functional tests is to test each function of the software application, by providing appropriate input, verifying the output against the Functional requirements.
Fundamentals of Functional Testing
Functional testing ensures that your software works as designed from the user’s perspective by checking the application from A to Z, without a prior understanding of how the code functions internally.
In Functional testing, you’re checking every function of the application/software that if it works as required before the product is live. Uncovering bugs in testing is preferable before the product goes wide scale. Debugging is more manageable in a contained space after all.
Overall functional testing involves checking:
1) User Interface: Testing whether a user can navigate the app without any difficulties. Anticipating what the user wants to do and planning for them to be able to do so is a valuable step in the software development process. Considering, for instance, the criticality of a good impression on app users on their first visit testing the simplicity and efficacy of the signup process simple and seeking out undetected bugs can have a big impact on retention.
2) Error conditions: Check that error messages are displayed and errors are handled properly. This becomes particularly important for story-driven agile teams, where stories often focus on “Best outcomes” to the exclusion of errors.
3) Text handling: Considering input, copying, pasting, and editing for text including extended characters, special fonts and non-Latin scripts.
Functional testing requires identifying the test data, compute the expected outcomes, execute test cases, and compare actual and expected results to determine in practical terms what the product does and whether or not it is doing so as expected.
Why Functional Testing?
Effective functional testing replicates user and business requirements for the software. The primary objective is to simulate the actual way the software system or application will be used. this intends to take out the assumptions and identify what exactly each function is meant to do, what it will look like if it functions correctly, and determine whether or not it actually does that.
Functional testing ensures that all of the parts come together so users can meet their goals. For instance, function testing can highlight:
Missing functionality is when the application/software is not capable of doing what was expected or is not doing what a user can do .
User interface errors, when data is received but the user cannot perform any action on it because of problems in the user interface.
Incorrect specifications – when specifications are incomplete, incorrect or inconsistent. Errors communicating among components – when components of a system work correctly in isolation but don’t come together properly.
The functional tester, after all, is not blinded by excitement over building a new feature in the code, or burdened with knowledge of how the code was built. Instead, the tester’s goal is quality assurance and making sure the software is released to users with full functionality — doing what the coders intended and perfectly.
Successful QA testers will also employ both positive and negative testing. While positive testing sets out to make sure that a software application will perform as planned, negative testing does the opposite. Negative testing is a little like trying to get the software to beg for mercy. Determining in advance what causes the software to fail, lets you release more stable and reliable software. Identifying potential problems proactively also allows developers to outline in advance what actions the user cannot take and plan to handle issues in a more user friendly way.
Types of Functional Testing
Software testing isn’t a one-size-fits-all proposition. The right testing techniques should match your requirements at each stage of your process. Fittingly, there are many common types of functional testing. These include: